# Preface¶

“As we enjoy great Advantages from the Inventions of others, we should be glad of an Opportunity to serve others by any Invention of ours, and this we should do freely and generously.”

—Benjamin Franklin, quoted in Benjamin Franklin by Edmund S. Morgan.

## Why I wrote this book¶

This is the fifth edition of a book I started writing in 1999, when I was teaching at Colby College. I had taught an introductory computer science class using the Java programming language, but I had not found a textbook I was happy with. For one thing, they were all too big! There was no way my students would read 800 pages of dense, technical material, even if I wanted them to. And I didn’t want them to. Most of the material was too specific—details about Java and its libraries that would be obsolete by the end of the semester, and that obscured the material I really wanted to get to.

The other problem I found was that the introduction to object-oriented programming was too abrupt. Many students who were otherwise doing well just hit a wall when we got to objects, whether we did it at the beginning, middle or end.

So I started writing. I wrote a chapter a day for 13 days, and on the 14th day I edited. Then I sent it to be photocopied and bound. When I handed it out on the first day of class, I told the students that they would be expected to read one chapter a week. In other words, they would read it seven times slower than I wrote it.

### The philosophy behind it¶

Here are some of the ideas that make the book the way it is:

• Vocabulary is important. Students need to be able to talk about programs and understand what I am saying. I try to introduce the minimum number of terms, to define them carefully when they are first used, and to organize them in glossaries at the end of each chapter. In my class, I include vocabulary questions on quizzes and exams, and require students to use appropriate terms in short-answer responses.
• To write a program, students have to understand the algorithm, know the programming language, and they have to be able to debug. I think too many books neglect debugging. This book includes an appendix on debugging and an appendix on program development (which can help avoid debugging). I recommend that students read this material early and come back to it often.
• Some concepts take time to sink in. Some of the more difficult ideas in the book, like recursion, appear several times. By coming back to these ideas, I am trying to give students a chance to review and reinforce or, if they missed it the first time, a chance to catch up.
• I try to use the minimum amount of Java to get the maximum amount of programming power. The purpose of this book is to teach programming and some introductory ideas from computer science, not Java. I left out some language features, like the switch statement, that are unnecessary, and avoided most of the libraries, especially the ones like the AWT that have been changing quickly or are likely to be replaced.

The minimalism of my approach has some advantages. Each chapter is about ten pages, not including the exercises. In my classes I ask students to read each chapter before we discuss it, and I have found that they are willing to do that and their comprehension is good. Their preparation makes class time available for discussion of the more abstract material, in-class exercises, and additional topics that aren’t in the book.

But minimalism has some disadvantages. There is not much here that is intrinsically fun. Most of my examples demonstrate the most basic use of a language feature, and many of the exercises involve string manipulation and mathematical ideas. I think some of them are fun, but many of the things that excite students about computer science, like graphics, sound and network applications, are given short shrift.

The problem is that many of the more exciting features involve lots of details and not much concept. Pedagogically, that means a lot of effort for not much payoff. So there is a tradeoff between the material that students enjoy and the material that is most intellectually rich. I leave it to individual teachers to find the balance that is best for their classes. To help, the book includes appendices that cover graphics, keyboard input and file input.

### Object-oriented programming¶

Some books introduce objects immediately; others warm up with a more procedural style and develop object-oriented style more gradually. This book uses the “objects late” approach.

Many of Java’s object-oriented features are motivated by problems with previous languages, and their implementations are influenced by this history. Some of these features are hard to explain if students aren’t familiar with the problems they solve.

It wasn’t my intention to postpone object-oriented programming. On the contrary, I got to it as quickly as I could, limited by my intention to introduce concepts one at a time, as clearly as possible, in a way that allows students to practice each idea in isolation before adding the next. But I have to admit that it takes some time to get there.

### The Computer Science AP Exam¶

Naturally, when the College Board announced that the AP Exam would switch to Java, I made plans to update the Java version of the book. Looking at the proposed AP Syllabus, I saw that their subset of Java was all but identical to the subset I had chosen.

During January 2003, I worked on the Fourth Edition of the book, making these changes:

• I added sections to improve coverage of the AP syllabus.
• I improved the appendices on debugging and program development.
• I collected the exercises, quizzes, and exam questions I had used in my classes and put them at the end of the appropriate chapters. I also made up some problems that are intended to help with AP Exam preparation.

Finally, in August 2011 I wrote the fifth edition, adding coverage of the GridWorld Case Study that is part of the AP Exam.

### Free books!¶

Since the beginning, this book has under a license that allows users to copy, distribute and modify the book. Readers can download the book in a variety of formats and read it on screen or print it. Teachers are free to print as many copies as they need. And anyone is free to customize the book for their needs.

People have translated the book into other computer languages (including Python and Eiffel), and other natural languages (including Spanish, French and German). Many of these derivatives are also available under free licenses.

Motivated by Open Source Software, I adopted the philosophy of releasing the book early and updating it often. I do my best to minimize the number of errors, but I also depend on readers to help out.

The response has been great. I get messages almost every day from people who have read the book and liked it enough to take the trouble to send in a “bug report.” Often I can correct an error and post an updated version within a few minutes. I think of the book as a work in progress, improving a little whenever I have time to make a revision, or when readers send feedback.

### Oh, the title¶

I get a lot of grief about the title of the book. Not everyone understands that it is—mostly—a joke. Reading this book will probably not make you think like a computer scientist. That takes time, experience, and probably a few more classes.

But there is a kernel of truth in the title: this book is not about Java, and it is only partly about programming. If it is successful, this book is about a way of thinking. Computer scientists have an approach to problem-solving, and a way of crafting solutions, that is unique, versatile and powerful. I hope that this book gives you a sense of what that approach is, and that at some point you will find yourself thinking like a computer scientist.

Allen Downey Needham, Massachusetts July 13, 2011

## Contributors List¶

When I started writing free books, it didn’t occur to me to keep a contributors list. When Jeff Elkner suggested it, it seemed so obvious that I am embarassed by the omission. This list starts with the 4th Edition, so it omits many people who contributed suggestions and corrections to earlier versions.

If you have additional comments, please send them to: feedback@greenteapress.com

• Ellen Hildreth used this book to teach Data Structures at Wellesley College, and she gave me a whole stack of corrections, along with some great suggestions.
• Tania Passfield pointed out that the glossary of Chapter 4 has some leftover terms that no longer appear in the text.
• Elizabeth Wiethoff noticed that my series expansion of $$\exp(-x^2)$$ was wrong. She is also working on a Ruby version of the book!
• Matt Crawford sent in a whole patch file full of corrections!
• Chi-Yu Li pointed out a typo and an error in one of the code examples.
• Doan Thanh Nam corrected an example in Chapter 3.
• Stijn Debrouwere found a math typo.
• Muhammad Saied translated the book into Arabic, and found several errors.
• Marius Margowski found an inconsistency in a code example.
• Guy Driesen found several typos.
• Leslie Klein discovered yet another error in the series expansion of $$\exp(-x^2)$$, identified typos in the card array figures, and gave helpful suggestions to clarify several exercises.

Finally, I wish to acknowledge Chris Mayfield for his significant contribution to version 5.1 of this book. His careful review lead to over one hundred corrections and improvements throughout. Several new features include embedded hypertext links and cross references, consistent layout of all exercises, and Java syntax highlighting in code examples.

## Preface to the Sphinx Edition by James Riely¶

This 2013, I ported the source of this book from LaTeX to Sphinx. I did this using Pandoc, with some manual pre- and post-processing. I also converted the graphics from PDF to SVG using pdf2svg.

The resulting sphinx source is available here.

A PDF is available here.

You can reach me here.