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package algs42;
import stdlib.*;
import algs13.Queue;
import algs13.Stack;
import algs44.DirectedEdge;
import algs44.EdgeWeightedDigraph;
/* ***********************************************************************
 *  Compilation:  javac DepthFirstOrder.java
 *  Execution:    java DepthFirstOrder filename.txt
 *  Dependencies: Digraph.java Queue.java Stack.java StdOut.java
 *                EdgeWeightedDigraph.java DirectedEdge.java
 *  Data files:   http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/42directed/tinyDAG.txt
 *                http://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/42directed/tinyDG.txt
 *
 *  Compute preorder and postorder for a digraph or edge-weighted digraph.
 *  Runs in O(E + V) time.
 *
 *  % java DepthFirstOrder tinyDAG.txt
 *     v  pre post
 *  --------------
 *     0    0    8
 *     1    3    2
 *     2    9   10
 *     3   10    9
 *     4    2    0
 *     5    1    1
 *     6    4    7
 *     7   11   11
 *     8   12   12
 *     9    5    6
 *    10    8    5
 *    11    6    4
 *    12    7    3
 *  Preorder:  0 5 4 1 6 9 11 12 10 2 3 7 8
 *  Postorder: 4 5 1 12 11 10 9 6 0 3 2 7 8
 *  Reverse postorder: 8 7 2 3 0 6 9 10 11 12 1 5 4
 *
 *************************************************************************/

public class DepthFirstOrder {
  private final boolean[] marked;          // marked[v] = has v been marked in dfs?
  private final int[] pre;                 // pre[v]    = preorder  number of v
  private final int[] post;                // post[v]   = postorder number of v
  private final Queue<Integer> preorder;   // vertices in preorder
  private final Stack<Integer> revPost;    // vertices in preorder
  private final Queue<Integer> postorder;  // vertices in postorder
  private int preCounter;            // counter or preorder numbering
  private int postCounter;           // counter for postorder numbering

  // depth-first search preorder and postorder in a digraph
  public DepthFirstOrder(Digraph G) {
    pre    = new int[G.V()];
    post   = new int[G.V()];
    revPost   = new Stack<>();
    postorder = new Queue<>();
    preorder  = new Queue<>();
    marked    = new boolean[G.V()];
    for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)
      if (!marked[v]) dfs(G, v);
  }

  // depth-first search preorder and postorder in an edge-weighted digraph
  public DepthFirstOrder(EdgeWeightedDigraph G) {
    pre    = new int[G.V()];
    post   = new int[G.V()];
    revPost   = new Stack<>();
    postorder = new Queue<>();
    preorder  = new Queue<>();
    marked    = new boolean[G.V()];
    for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++)
      if (!marked[v]) dfs(G, v);
  }

  // run DFS in digraph G from vertex v and compute preorder/postorder
  private void dfs(Digraph G, int v) {
    marked[v] = true;
    pre[v] = preCounter++;
    preorder.enqueue(v);
    for (int w : G.adj(v)) {
      if (!marked[w]) {
        dfs(G, w);
      }
    }
    postorder.enqueue(v);
    revPost.push(v);
    post[v] = postCounter++;
    return;
  }

  // run DFS in edge-weighted digraph G from vertex v and compute preorder/postorder
  private void dfs(EdgeWeightedDigraph G, int v) {
    marked[v] = true;
    pre[v] = preCounter++;
    preorder.enqueue(v);
    for (DirectedEdge e : G.adj(v)) {
      int w = e.to();
      if (!marked[w]) {
        dfs(G, w);
      }
    }
    postorder.enqueue(v);
    revPost.push(v);
    post[v] = postCounter++;
  }

  public int pre(int v) {
    return pre[v];
  }

  public int post(int v) {
    return post[v];
  }

  // return vertices in postorder as an Iterable
  public Iterable<Integer> post() {
    return postorder;
  }

  // return vertices in preorder as an Iterable
  public Iterable<Integer> pre() {
    return preorder;
  }

  // return vertices in reverse postorder as an Iterable
  public Iterable<Integer> reversePost() {
    return revPost;
  }


  // check that pre() and post() are consistent with pre(v) and post(v)
  private boolean check(Digraph G) {

    // check that post(v) is consistent with post()
    int r = 0;
    for (int v : post()) {
      if (post(v) != r) {
        StdOut.println("post(v) and post() inconsistent");
        return false;
      }
      r++;
    }

    // check that pre(v) is consistent with pre()
    r = 0;
    for (int v : pre()) {
      if (pre(v) != r) {
        StdOut.println("pre(v) and pre() inconsistent");
        return false;
      }
      r++;
    }

    return true;
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) {
    args = new String[] { "data/tinyDG.txt" };

    In in = new In(args[0]);
    Digraph G = new Digraph(in);

    DepthFirstOrder dfs = new DepthFirstOrder(G);
    StdOut.println("   v  pre post");
    StdOut.println("--------------");
    for (int v = 0; v < G.V(); v++) {
      StdOut.format("%4d %4d %4d\n", v, dfs.pre(v), dfs.post(v));
    }

    StdOut.print("Preorder:  ");
    for (int v : dfs.pre()) {
      StdOut.print(v + " ");
    }
    StdOut.println();

    StdOut.print("Postorder: ");
    for (int v : dfs.post()) {
      StdOut.print(v + " ");
    }
    StdOut.println();

    StdOut.print("Reverse postorder: ");
    for (int v : dfs.reversePost()) {
      StdOut.print(v + " ");
    }
    StdOut.println();


  }

}